Blurring the Strains. Android RenderEffects #1: the blur… | by Chet Haase | Android Builders | Nov, 2022 | Solo Tech

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Android RenderEffects #1: the blur impact

This text (and the subsequent one) is basically a written model of my half from a video that sumir kataria and recorded for this 12 months’s Android Developer Summit:

Right here is the video model of this text (and extra!)

After I began studying use the blur impact, it wasn’t apparent to me incorporate it right into a normal utility, so I assumed it’d assist make clear what it is for, the place it matches into Android’s normal rendering toolbox, and create and use blur results.

On the most basic degree, visible parts in Android (reminiscent of buttons, textual content, and different UI or customized parts) are usually rendered by calls to the Canvas APIs, reminiscent of drawLine(), drawText(), drawBitmap(), and so. These strategies will not be known as straight by your code until you’re drawing objects in a customized view, however they’re known as in your behalf when UI elements are drawn in your utility.

Most of those drawing instructions present three items of data to the rendering system. You may consider these because the what, the placeY What data for the drawing, the place what is the operation itself (the “primitive” of drawing), the place is the placement (location and dimension) of the thing, and What is the set of drawing attributes. It’s these attributes that concern us right now, as a result of that’s the place the blur is available in.

Every drawing primitive tells the renderer what, the place, and the way to attract the thing.

Drawing attributes are supplied by aPaint object, which has default attributes that may be modified by the caller (your utility or the UI system in your behalf). most of Paint APIs are comparatively easy and apparent, like setColor() by the colour that the primitives needs to be drawn, setStyle() to know if the thing needs to be stuffed or “stroked” (for an object’s define), plus a veritable plethora of textual content attributes that I will not go into right here.

There are additionally extra highly effective and complicated attributes that you may assign to a Paint object. These embody ColorFilter subclasses (like my private favourite, ColorMatrixColorFilterwhich deserves an award for the LongestAndMostRepetitiveClassRepetitiveNameEver) for altering the colours of the primitives, and shaders. Shaders embody varied gradient objects along with bitmaps, and supply supply colours from which a draw operation is sampled to offer the ensuing colours of the geometry being drawn. Utilizing shaders permits you, for instance, to fill a rectangle with a linear or round gradient, or use the values ​​of a bitmap to fill or stroke that rectangle as a substitute. (Trailer: There is a new ‘shader’ API in Android 13 that permits you to go a lot additional than these results – keep tuned for the subsequent article on this collection for extra on that.)

All the above APIs can help you set attributes for people draw*() calls, if you need to have an effect on particular person drawing operations (reminiscent of drawing a line inside a customized view). However what if you wish to use attributes for all drawing operations in a View? For instance, what in the event you needed to use a shade tint to a button (which internally consists of a number of separate draw operations) or apply a shadow to a button? View?

that is the place RenderEffect is available in. RenderEffect teams a number of shaders and applies them to a set View— or to a RenderNode (the underlying rendering mechanism for Views)—to maintain issues easy by having the renderer apply these results to a whole View. you should utilize just one RenderEffect or chain a number of collectively to use a number of results.

When RenderEffect was launched, in API degree 31, it supplied methods to gather current attribute results like ColorFilter , BitmapY Shader in results, along with chaining them, with manufacturing facility strategies like these:

static RenderEffect createBitmapEffect(Bitmap bitmap)
static RenderEffect createColorFilterEffect(ColorFilter colorFilter)
static RenderEffect createShaderEffect(Shader shader)
static RenderEffect createChainEffect(RenderEffect outer,
RenderEffect inside)

However RenderEffect additionally launched a brand new drawing impact alongside the best way: Blur.

Along with objects that encapsulate current ones Paint attributes, RenderEffect additionally launched a brand new impact that enables straightforward blurring View both RenderNode contents:

static RenderEffect createBlurEffect(float radiusX, float radiusY,
Shader.TileMode edgeTreatment)
static RenderEffect createBlurEffect(float radiusX, float radiusY,
RenderEffect inputEffect,
Shader.TileMode edgeTreatment)

With these strategies, now you can simply create a blur impact on a View (or, utilizing the second overload above, one other RenderEffect) to blur all content material because it renders. Consider it as sending the unique content material of the view via a filter that blurs it alongside the best way. That is basically what’s occurring, although the precise approach it achieves that is by rendering the content material off-screen, making use of the blur, after which copying the blurred consequence again to the unique vacation spot.

the radius The parameters decide how massive the blur is (what number of pixels outdoors of every pixel within the enter supply are blended in every path), and the TileMode determines what occurs on the edges of the blur. This final parameter is required as a result of a blur operates on pixels outdoors of the pixel being computed, so it must know what to do when these different pixels are outdoors of the enter content material.

After getting created the blur, you’ll be able to set it to a View calling:

View.setRenderEffect(renderEffect RenderEffect)

Equally, you would set it to a RenderNode:

RenderNode.setRenderEffect(renderEffect RenderEffect)

… And that’s! After getting configured the RenderEffect, any drawing that occurs on that object will use the impact you set on it. If you wish to change the attributes of the impact (such because the blur radius), recreate it and set it up once more, as above.

I wrote a easy app to see how blurs could possibly be utilized in a UI. Particularly, I needed to exhibit how a blur can be utilized to assist “pop” foreground content material from the background, simply as digital camera focus helps isolate the topic of the picture from the background.

First, I obtained blurs engaged on the background. On this case, that fund is a photograph gallery; a structure containing a set of picture thumbnails.

A structure containing picture thumbnails. Clicking on a picture shows an enlarged view of the picture.

Clicking on one of many photographs enlarges it and shows a caption for that photograph. Would not it’s good if we might blur the background so the remainder of the pictures would not create an excessive amount of visible noise once we tried to give attention to the foreground picture and its caption?

I added a SeekBar to the app to permit altering the blur dynamically. This isn’t one thing you would want in a completed app (simply choose a blur that works and keep it up – the consumer will not need to tweak that kind of factor, so hold the UI easy). However I needed to make use of it initially to mess around with totally different blurs and present recreate them with totally different parameters. seekBar passes in a price from 0 to 50 (the min/max values ​​within the SeekBar consumer interface element).

seekBar.setOnSeekBarChangeListener(object : SeekBar.OnSeekBarChangeListener
override enjoyable onProgressChanged(seekBar: SeekBar, progress: Int,
fromUser: Boolean)
updateEffect(progress.toFloat())

// begin/cease overrides stubbed out...
)

updateEffect() use the progress worth for a blur radius (I exploit the identical worth for x and y). Essential word: a price of 0 is used to point that the blur needs to be eliminated, which is finished by setting RenderEffect a null. It seems that asking for a blur of radius 0 (mathematically equal to no blur) will crash. 0 apparently not a price the system expects when requesting a blur impact. That is poorly documented (we’re fixing it…), so I assumed you would possibly need to know in case you do that at residence. I do know you have been questioning what was occurring when my preliminary code did not deal with that worth.

enjoyable updateEffect(progress: Float) 
if (progress > 0)
val blur = RenderEffect.createBlurEffect(
progress, progress, Shader.TileMode.CLAMP)
pictureGrid.setRenderEffect(blur)
else
pictureGrid.setRenderEffect(null)

updateEffect() creates the RenderEffect (or overrides it to take away it), with the progress worth for the radius, then units it within the picture structure, and voilàwe now have blur:

Picture gallery with blur RenderEffect utilized to the container

Now that we now have the blur job, it is time to work on the enlarged picture on high. That impact is dealt with via the brand new AGSL. RuntimeShader on Android 13 and is described in Half 2 of this collection: AGSL: Made within the Shade(r).


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Blurring the Lines. Android RenderEffects #1: the blur… | by Chet Haase | Android Developers | Nov, 2022