The Godfather of South Korea’s Chip Trade

The Godfather of South Korea’s Chip Industry

They had been known as “Kim’s Mafia.” Kim Choong-Ki himself wouldn’t have put it that approach. Nevertheless it was true what semiconductor engineers in South Korea whispered about his former college students: They had been in all places.

Beginning within the mid-Nineteen Eighties, as chip manufacturing within the nation accelerated, engineers who had studied underneath Kim at
Korea Superior Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) assumed prime posts within the {industry} in addition to coveted positions instructing or researching semiconductors at universities and authorities institutes. By the start of the twenty first century, South Korea had develop into a dominant energy within the world semiconductor market, assembly greater than 60 p.c of worldwide demand for reminiscence chips alone. Around the globe, lots of Kim’s protégés had been lauded for his or her good success in remodeling the financial system of a nation that had simply began assembling radio units in 1959 and was fabricating outdated reminiscence chips within the early ’80s.


That success may be traced partly to Kim, now an emeritus professor at KAIST. Of common top, with grey hair since his mid-30s, he was the primary professor in South Korea to systematically educate semiconductor engineering. From 1975, when the nation had barely begun producing its first transistors, to 2008, when he retired from instructing, Kim skilled greater than 100 college students, successfully creating the primary two generations of South Korean semiconductor consultants.

Kim and his former college students and their households rejoice his sixtieth birthday on the summit of South Korea’s Mount Deokyu.Chang Hae-Ja

The Samsung Welfare Basis acknowledged Kim’s affect when it
awarded him its prestigious Ho-Am Prize in 1993 for “constructing a strong basis for Korea’s semiconductor {industry}.” Since then, he has been revered within the South Korean media because the {industry}’s “godfather.” But even at present, Kim stays largely unknown exterior of South Korea’s chip neighborhood. Who, then, is that this inconspicuous semiconductor “Mafia” boss?

A Begin in Digicam Chips

Kim Choong-Ki was born in Seoul in 1942, when Korea was a colony of the Japanese Empire. His mom taught elementary college; his father, Kim Byung-Woon, was a textile engineer for
Kyungbang, Korea’s iconic producer of yarns and materials. The elder Kim had helped construct the corporate’s first spinning manufacturing unit, and his engineering savvy and consequent renown impressed his son. “He made a each day tour of the manufacturing unit,” the youthful Kim remembers. “He informed me that he might detect which machines had been in hassle and why, simply by listening to them.” Such classes planted the seed of an ethos that will drive Kim Choong-Ki’s profession—what he got here to name the “engineer’s thoughts.”

Rising up, Kim Choong-Ki was a mannequin South Korean pupil: bookish, obedient, and silent. Though his household pressed him to hitch his father within the textile {industry}, he as an alternative selected to pursue electrical engineering. He studied at Seoul Nationwide College after which at Columbia College, in New York Metropolis, the place he earned his doctorate underneath
Edward S. Yang, a specialist in transistor principle. Shortly after, in the summertime of 1970, Fairchild Camera and Instrument employed Kim to work in its analysis and growth laboratory in Palo Alto, Calif.

A young man in a jacket and tie stands before a pillared building with dozens of steps leading up to it.Kim, proven on the Columbia campus, studied for his Ph.D. on the college underneath Edward S. Yang, a specialist in transistor principle. Chang Hae-Ja

A woman with short grey hair is seated at a table. Behind her stand an older man in a hat and young man.Kim’s mom and father, a famend Korean textile engineer, go to him in Palo Alto, Calif., in 1971.Chang Hae-Ja

Since World Struggle II, Fairchild Digicam had been the world’s leading developer of imaging gear, together with radar cameras, radio compasses, and X-ray machines. In 1957, the corporate launched the division Fairchild Semiconductor to manufacture transistors and built-in circuits from silicon, then an modern transfer, as most semiconductor gadgets on the time used germanium. The enterprise spawned dozens of merchandise, together with the primary silicon built-in circuit, thus fueling the rise of Silicon Valley. As a newcomer to Fairchild’s R&D lab, Kim was put to work on considered one of these new sorts of chips: the charge-coupled machine.

Simply the yr earlier than, in 1969, George E. Smith and Willard Boyle at Bell Laboratories
proposed the concept of the CCD, for which they’d later win a Nobel Prize. Nevertheless it was Kim and his colleagues at Fairchild who realized the primary CCD gadgets that developed into business merchandise extensively utilized in digital pictures, radiography, and astronomy. Kim grew to become so proficient in CCD expertise that different engineers on the firm recurrently dropped by his workplace on the finish of the day to select his mind. “Quickly they started to name me Professor CCD,” he remembers.

A young man in a jacket and tie stands in front of a pale brick wall with lettering attached.Kim’s colleagues at Fairchild Semiconductor’s analysis and growth laboratories known as him “Professor CCD.”Chang Hae-Ja

Amongst different innovations, Kim helped develop a
CCD space picture sensor that drastically improved low-light detection and the primary two-phase CCD linear picture sensor—which, he reported, assured “the benefit of use and the prime quality of picture replica.” “Fairchild’s—or higher name them Choong-Ki’s—CCDs made possible the wide applications in high-resolution cameras,” Columbia’s Yang says. With out these purposeful gadgets, he provides, “there can be no Nobel Prize for the CCD.”

Kim’s time at Fairchild reworked him as a lot because it did digital camera expertise. His education in South Korea and at Columbia had primarily emphasised book studying and principle. However his expertise at Fairchild solidified his perception, first impressed by his father, {that a} true “engineer’s thoughts” requires sensible ability as a lot as theoretical data. Along with performing experiments, he made a behavior of studying inside technical stories and memos that he discovered on the firm library, a few of which he later dropped at KAIST and used as instructing materials.

At Fairchild, Kim additionally realized find out how to talk with and lead different engineers. When he began there, he was soft-spoken and introverted, however his mentors at Fairchild inspired him to specific himself confidently and clearly. Later, the transformed Kim would develop into the “loudest-speaking” professor at KAIST, based on a number of fellow school members, they usually say his absence made the entire campus appear quiet.

Kim rose rapidly inside Fairchild’s hierarchy. However simply 5 years into his tenure, he returned to South Korea. His beloved father had died, and, because the eldest son, he felt a heavy duty to look after his widowed mom. Racial discrimination he skilled at Fairchild had additionally damage his pleasure. Most vital, nevertheless, he had discovered an excellent place to work back home.

Then known as KAIS (the “T” was added in 1981), Kim’s new employer was the primary science and expertise college in South Korea and stays probably the most prestigious. The South Korean authorities had established the institute in 1971 with financing from the US Company for Worldwide Improvement and had invited
Frederick E. Terman, the legendary dean of Stanford College’s college of engineering and a “father” of Silicon Valley, to attract up the blueprint for its course. Terman pressured that KAIS ought to purpose to “fulfill the wants of Korean {industry} and Korean industrial institutions for extremely skilled and modern specialists, somewhat than so as to add to the world’s retailer of fundamental data.” It was the right place for Kim to unfold his newfound philosophy of the “engineer’s thoughts.”

South Korea’s Founding Lab

Kim’s laboratory at KAIS attracted scores of formidable grasp’s and doctoral candidates from nearly the second he arrived within the spring of 1975. The first purpose for the lab’s recognition was apparent: South Korean college students had been hungry to find out about semiconductors. The federal government touted the significance of those gadgets, as did electronics firms like GoldStar and Samsung, which wanted them to fabricate their radios, televisions, microwaves, and watches. However the {industry} had but to mass-produce its personal chips past fundamental built-in circuits similar to CMOS watch chips, largely because of an absence of semiconductor specialists. For 20 years, till the mid-Nineteen Nineties, becoming a member of Kim’s lab was basically the one approach for aspiring semiconductor engineers in South Korea to get hands-on coaching; KAIS was the one college within the nation that had ready academics and correct amenities, together with clear rooms for assembling high-quality chips.

Nevertheless it wasn’t KAIST’s digital monopoly on semiconductor coaching that made Kim a mentor with out peer. He launched a method of instructing and of mastering engineering that was new to South Korea. As an example, his conviction that an “engineer’s thoughts” requires equal components principle and utility at first puzzled his college students, who regarded engineering as mainly a scholarly self-discipline. Though they had been proficient in arithmetic and properly learn, most of them had by no means carried out any severe work in design and development.

Subsequently, one of many first classes Kim taught his college students was find out how to use their fingers. Earlier than they launched into their very own initiatives, he put them to work cleansing the lab, repairing and upgrading gear, and monitoring down mandatory components. On this approach, they realized find out how to resolve issues for themselves and find out how to improvise in conditions for which no textbook had ready them. Their view of what it means to be an engineer modified profoundly and completely. Lots of them confess they nonetheless repeat Kim’s dicta to at the present time. For instance: “Don’t select the topics that others have already thrown into the trash can.” And: “Scientists think about
why first, however we engineers should assume how first.” And: “Improper determination is best than gradual determination.”

Kim’s former college students keep in mind him as type, humorous, nonauthoritarian, meticulous, and hardworking. However in addition they say he was strict and might be scorching tempered and even terrifying, particularly when he thought they had been being lazy or sloppy. Legend has it that a few of his students entered the lab via a ladder from the rooftop to bypass Kim’s office. One in all his largest grievances was when college students didn’t correctly steadiness principle and observe. “Make it your self; then we’ll begin a dialogue,” he scolded those that centered an excessive amount of on mental examine. Alternatively, he mentioned, “Why don’t you employ one thing malleable throughout the laborious nut in your neck?” as a reproach to those that spent an excessive amount of time constructing issues, implying that they need to additionally use their brains.

Kim influenced not solely his personal college students but additionally numerous others by his openness. He cooperated with and even shared laboratory house with different KAIST professors, and he favored to go to different departments and universities to provide seminars or just to realize new concepts and views—habits that was, and nonetheless is, very uncommon in South Korean educational tradition. In his autobiography,
Chin Dae-Je, who developed 16-megabit DRAM at Samsung in 1989 and later served as South Korea’s minister of knowledge and expertise, recounts searching for out Kim’s tutelage when Chin was a graduate pupil at Seoul Nationwide College within the mid-Seventies. “There was an intense spirit of competitors” between SNU and KAIST, remembers Chin, whose alma matter labeled him a “drawback pupil” for learning with a rival professor.

Kim’s collegiality prolonged past academia to {industry} and authorities . Within the early Nineteen Eighties, throughout a sabbatical, he led semiconductor analysis and growth on the government-funded
Korea Institute of Electronics Know-how, which developed each 32-kilobit and 64-kilobit ROM underneath his directorship. His widespread semiconductor workshops at KAIST impressed GoldStar (LG since 1995), Hyundai Electronics (Hynix since 2001), and Samsung to sponsor their very own coaching packages at KAIST within the Nineteen Nineties. Kim’s shut partnership with these firms additionally helped launch different pioneering mostly-industry-funded initiatives at KAIST, together with the Heart for Excessive-Efficiency Built-in Techniques and the Built-in-Circuit Design Schooling Heart, each directed by Kim’s former pupil Kyung Chong-Min. And the semiconductor {industry}, in flip, benefited from the ever extra extremely skilled workforce rising from Kim’s orbit.

More than three dozen people stand in in four rows. A bald man is at the center of the front row.Kim [front row, orange tie] additionally served as director of Korea’s Heart for Electro-Optics, a authorities analysis institute fashioned to develop applied sciences for thermal imaging, fiber optics, and lasers.Chang Hae-Ja

The Evolution of South Korea’s Semiconductor Trade

Two men in academic robes and mortar caps face the camera. Others in similar dress or in suits appear the background facing in different directions.Chung Jin-Yong [right], a former pupil of Kim [left], developed DRAM for Hynix after graduating from KAIST in 1976.Chang Hae-Ja

Kim’s lab at KAIST developed in parallel with the expansion of the semiconductor sector in South Korea, which may be divided into three durations. In the course of the first interval, starting within the mid-Sixties, the federal government led the cost by enacting legal guidelines and drawing up plans for {industry} growth, establishing analysis institutes, and urgent firms and universities to pay extra consideration to semiconductor expertise. Samsung and different electronics firms wouldn’t get severe about manufacturing semiconductor gadgets till the early Nineteen Eighties. So when Kim began his lab, nearly a decade prior, he was coaching engineers to fulfill the {industry}’s
future wants.

His first group of scholars labored totally on the design and fabrication of semiconductors utilizing PMOS, NMOS, and CMOS applied sciences that, whereas not leading edge by world requirements, had been fairly superior for the South Korea of the time. As a result of there have been few {industry} jobs, many alumni of Kim’s lab took positions at authorities analysis institutes, the place they developed state-of-the-art experimental chips. An exception was Lim Hyung-Kyu, considered one of Kim’s first grasp’s candidates, whom Samsung despatched to check at KAIST in 1976. Lim would go on to guide the event of assorted reminiscence gadgets at Samsung, most significantly NAND flash reminiscence within the Nineteen Nineties.

The second interval began in 1983, when Samsung declared that it might pursue semiconductors aggressively, beginning with DRAM. The transfer drove rival conglomerates similar to Hyundai and GoldStar to do likewise. Because of this, the South Korean chip {industry} quickly expanded. KAIST and different universities supplied the mandatory manpower, and the federal government diminished its position. In Kim’s lab, college students started to discover rising applied sciences—together with polysilicon thin-film transistors (for LCD panels), infrared sensors (for army use), and fast thermal processing (which elevated effectivity and reduced costs of semiconductor manufacturing)—and revealed their ends in prestigious worldwide journals.

Seven men in academic robes and three others in suits stand shoulder to shoulder.KAIST engineering professors Kim [center, gray robe] and Kwon Younger-Se [right, blue hood] pose with grasp’s graduates in 1982. Chang Hae-Ja

A bespectacled man in a suit smiles while holding a smartphone.Kim’s former grasp’s pupil, Kwon Oh-Hyun, rose to develop into vice chairman and CEO of Samsung Electronics. Saul Loeb/AFP/Getty Photos

KAIST graduates flocked to Samsung, GoldStar/LG, and Hyundai/Hynix. As authorities affect declined, some alums from the primary interval who had labored at authorities analysis institutes additionally took company jobs. On the similar time, increasingly more of Kim’s former college students accepted college professorships. After leaving Kim’s lab in 1991, as an example, Cho Byung-Jin spent 4 years developing DRAM and flash memory at Hyundai before becoming a star professor at the National University of Singapore and later at KAIST. Kyung Chong-Min, Kim’s first doctoral candidate, joined KAIST’s school in 1983; by the point he retired in 2018, Kyung had skilled extra semiconductor specialists than Kim himself.

In the course of the third interval, from 2000 on, {industry} seized the helm of semiconductor growth. Academia churned out extra specialists in addition to vital analysis, with minimal contribution from authorities. Alumni of Kim’s lab continued to guide semiconductor engineering, a few of them rising to develop into high-ranking executives. For instance,
Kwon Oh-Hyun, who acquired his grasp’s diploma from KAIST in 1977, served as CEO at Samsung Electronics for many of the 2010s, when the corporate dominated the world market in not solely reminiscence but additionally cellphones, TVs, and residential home equipment.

Different alums played key roles in semiconductor analysis and growth. Ha Yong-Min at LG Show mastered TFT-LCD and OLED screens for tablets, pocket book computer systems, and cellphones; Park Sung-Kye, typically known as the “treasure of Hynix,” developed many of the firm’s reminiscence merchandise. In academia, in the meantime, Kim had develop into a mannequin to emulate. Lots of his trainees adopted his strategies and rules in instructing and mentoring their very own college students to develop into leaders within the discipline, making certain a gentle provide of extremely expert semiconductor engineers for generations to come back.

Within the spring of 2007, lower than a yr earlier than Kim turned 65—the obligatory retirement age in South Korean academia—KAIST elected him as considered one of its first distinguished professors, thus extending his tenure for all times. Moreover the Ho-Am Prize, he has garnered quite a few different awards through the years, together with the Order of Civil Advantage for “excellent meritorious companies…within the curiosity of enhancing residents’ welfare and selling nationwide growth.” And in 2019, he was named a Individual of Distinguished Service to Science and Know-how, one of many nation’s highest honors.

Legend and Legacy

For younger semiconductor engineers in South Korea at present, Kim Choong-Ki is a legend—the nice unsung hero behind their nation’s ascendancy in chip manufacturing. However its dominance on this planet market is now underneath menace. Though South Korea has competed furiously with Taiwan in current a long time, its most formidable challenger sooner or later will doubtless be China, whose formidable
Made in China 2025 plan prioritizes semiconductor growth. Since 2000, the nation has been a serious importer of South Korean chips. However China’s current heavy funding in semiconductors and the provision of extremely educated Chinese language engineers—together with semiconductor specialists skilled in the US, Japan, and South Korea—signifies that Chinese language semiconductor firms might quickly develop into main world opponents.

Compounding the issue, the South Korean authorities has uncared for its position in supporting chip growth within the twenty first century. Almost 50 years after Kim started educating its first semiconductor engineers, the {industry} once more faces a major workforce scarcity. Consultants estimate that
a number of thousand new engineering specialists are wanted annually, however the nation produces only some hundred. But regardless of firms’ pleas for extra staff and universities’ requires policies that advance educational schooling and analysis, the federal government has executed little.

Towards the tip of his profession, Kim had develop into involved with the constraints of the sort of “engineer’s thoughts” that had taken root in South Korea. “The financial growth of Korea was depending on reverse engineering and following superior nations,” he mentioned in an interview in 1997. That fast-follower strategy, he added, relied on an academic system that taught college students “find out how to learn maps”—to establish a recognized product purpose and plot a course for reaching it. “And who made the maps? Superior nations.” He thus concluded, “We now have to vary our instructional coverage and educate our college students how to attract maps.”

Kim himself could not have absolutely realized this formidable imaginative and prescient of cultivating a rustic of creative-minded engineers, able to pioneering really groundbreaking applied sciences that may secure his nation’s management on the world stage. However hopefully his successors have taken his recommendation to coronary heart. The way forward for South Korea is dependent upon it.

To learn extra, see “Switch of ‘Engineer’s Thoughts’: Kim Choong-Ki and the Semiconductor Trade in South Korea,” Engineering Research 11:2 (2019), 83-108.

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